Factors such as Excess concrete mix water, Faulty Design, Construction defect, Sulfate deterioration, Alkali aggregate reaction, Deterioration caused by cyclic freezing and thawing, abrasion-erosion damage, Corrosion of reinforcement steel and cracks are the causes of concrete damage. The process of replacement or correction deteriorated, damaged, or faulty materials, components, or elements of a concrete structure is called concrete repair. To perform meaningful evaluations and successful repairs the following seven steps shall be taken. Step 1: determine the cause of damage, Step 2: Evaluate the extent of damage, Step 3: determine the need to repair, Step 4: choose an appropriate repair system, Step 5: prepare the old concrete, Step 6: apply the repair systems, Step 7: cure the repair properly.
The process of restoring the capacity of weakened components or elements to their original design capacity, or increasing the strength of components or elements of a structure, used for retrofitting or seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings, is called structural strengthening. Structural strengthening techniques are used in local actions consisting of insertion of a new lateral force-resisting component (such as add new shear walls, braced frames, or moment frames to an existing building, …) or enhancement of the seismic resistance of an in-situ component (such as FRP Strengthening, steel